Lack of penetration
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2 INCOMPLETE PENETRATION This type of defect is found in any of three ways: 1) When the weld bead does Figure - Examples of Lack of Penetration.
Incomplete penetration (IP) or lack of penetration (LOP) occurs when the weld metal fails to penetrate the joint. It is one of the most objectionable weld.
The characteristic features and principal causes of incomplete root fusion and penetration are described. Welding procedure, joint features and access and welder technique will have a direct effect on fabrication imperfections.
Incomplete root fusion is when the weld fails to fuse.
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Description:For an efficient examination of welded joints, thorough knowledge not only of non-destructive testing methods but also of the defects to be detected is required. In the welding literature, however, there are very few data on lack of fusion, which is one of the most serious defects. There are also no efficient testing methods available for its detection. Our studies were to provide as much data as possible on lack of fusion. It was investigated with which welding processes lack of fusion is most frequent, what its position in a welded joint is and what its physical properties are.